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** Most of the studies and documents that follow were made available by the House Committee on Energy and Commerce during the course of hearings on Ephedra in June 2003. The format in which these studies are recorded replicates the exibit nomenclature and identification used by the Committee on Energy and Commerce.
C N Boozer, J A Nasser, S B Heymsfield, V Wang, G Chen, J L Solomon.
An herbal supplement
containing Ma Huang-Guarana for weight loss: a randomized, double-blind trial. International
Journal of Obesity 25, 316 - 324 (22 Feb 2001)
Made available by the House Committee on Energy and Commerce (July 2003)
Exhibit 99 – Study by Carol Boozer.
An herbal supplement containing Ma Huang-Guarana for weight loss: a randomized, double-blind trial. Publ'd 2001
C N Boozer, P A Daly, P
Homel, J L Solomon, D Blanchard, J A Nasser, R Strauss, T Meredith.
Herbal ephedra/caffeine for
weight loss: a 6-month randomized safety and efficacy trial. International Journal of
Obesity 26, 593 - 604 (25 Apr 2002)
R L Atkinson, International Journal of Obesity 26, 589 (25 Apr 2002) Editorial
A G Dulloo, International Journal ofObesity 26, 590 – 592 (25 Apr 2002) Guest Editorial
D Kalman, T Incledon, I Gaunaurd, H Schwartz, D Krieger.
An acute clinical trial evaluating the
cardiovascular effects of an herbal ephedra caffeine weight loss product in healthy overweight
adults. International Journal of Obesity 26, 1363 – 1366 (01 Oct 2002)
editor of the International Journal of Obesity from Doug Kalman ;
States that since the publication of their study, he and his research team have come to new conclusions regarding the adverse events experienced by the study subjects. (13 May 2003)
Letter of rejection letter to Doug Kalman from Obesity Research, stating that the journal will not publish his study. Includes reviewers criticisms. (18 January 2000)
Cytodyne Technology – Documents made available by the House Committee on Energy and Commerce
Study on Ephedra by Dr Carlon Colker 10 April 2000
Full citation for above: Kalman DS, Colker CM, Q Shi, MA Swain.
Effects of a weight loss aid in health overweight adults: double
blind placebo controlled clinical trial. Current Therapeutic Research 61 199-205 (April
Abstract of study on ephedra by Colker (undated)
Safety Assessment and
Determination of a Tolerable Upper Limit For Ephedra. (Prepared
for The Council For Responsible Nutrition by CANTOX Health Science International, 2000-12-19)
Carlon M. Colker, M.D.,
Georgeann C. Torina, Melissa A, Swain, Douglas S. Kalman.
Double-Blind, Placebo Controlled
Evaluation of the Safety and Efficacy of Ephedra, Caffeine, and Salicin for Short Term Weight
Reduction in Overweight Subjects. American Society of Exercise
Physiologists, 2nd Annual Meeting, 1999 – Abstract # 26
W. Jeffery Armstrong, Patrick Johnson, and
The Effect Of Commercial Thermogenic Weight Loss Supplement On Body Composition And
Energy Expenditure In Obese Adults. JEPonline. 2001; 4
and Ephedrine for Weight Loss and Athletic Performance Enhancement: Clinical Efficacy and Side
Effects. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 76. Shekelle P, Morton, S., Maglione M,
et al. (Prepared by Southern California Evidence-based Practice Center, RAND, under Contract No
290-97-0001, Task Order No. 9). AHRQ Publication No. 03-E022. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare
Research and Quality. February 2003
The safety and efficacy of
pharmaceutical and herbal caffeine and ephedrine use as a weight loss agent
Obesity Reviews 2 199-212 (2001)
Who or what is the Ephedra Education Council?
The Ephedra Education Council (EEC) is an educational organization providing factual information on ephedra dietary supplements to media, government, health professionals and the public. The EEC is supported by leading dietary supplement manufacturers and distributors that meet the Council's standards for the safe and responsible marketing of ephedra dietary supplements. (Accessed 2003-05-03 at: http://www.ephedrafacts.com/about.html )
Members of the Ephedra Education Council include:
Professional Associations, Charities, and Industry Front Groups, The Center for Science in the Public Interest. Accessed 2004-02-04 at: http://www.
Research Protocol Design:
Stratified, Double-Blind, Within-Subject & Between- Subject Study of Herbal Toxicity, Ian D
Bier ND, ST & T Consulting, 1995
Bibliography of research on Ephedra – DrugDigest.org
Last Updated: 2005-02-26
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